Electric vehicle charging standards
The following comes from a presentation at PlugIn 2010 - "The Near Future of Charging Panel AC vs. DC, slow vs. fast – the outlook for charging technologies". The presenters were all members of the SAE committees defining EV (automobile) charging standards.
SAE standards have defined six models of electric vehicle charging. Many have been thinking "Level 1" is regular US household outlets, "Level 2" is the EVSE equipment being deployed for cars, and that "Level 3" is the DC Fast Charge system. The panel presentation was meant to get us straight on what the SAE committee's have been discussing to organize the charging system.
|AC Charging||DC Charging|
|AC Level 1||120 V AC Single phase; max 16 amps; max 1.9 kw||DC Level 1||200-450 V DC; Current <= 80 amps; power <= 19.2 kw|
|AC Level 2||240 V AC Single phase; max 80 amps; max 19.2 kw||DC Level 2||200-450 V DC; max 200 amps; max 90 kw|
|AC Level 3||Not defined yet but they might do so, might cover AC three phase||DC Level 3||TBD, may cover 200-600 V DC; may cover up to 400 amps; may cover up to 240 kw|
Essentially "Level 3" doesn't exist yet and the charging standard everybody has been thinking of as "Level 3" is really either "DC Level 1" or "DC Level 2".
There are unfortunately several kinds of connectors being used:
The AC Level 1 connector we all use in our homes isn't shown. The top connector is the J1772 connector that all the automakers have agreed on. The bottom one is a proposal for DC Level 2 which combines the J1772 connector with a couple extra pins for DC charging.
The connectors defined for Europe are different from the ones defined in the US and Japan. The signals are all the same on the connectors, just the connector shapes are different. Also Japan has defined a DC Fast Charge system, CHAdeMO, which is popular in Japan but the SAE committee is apparently reluctant to adopt.
IEC 62192-2 Type 1 is approximately the same as the J1772 connector. However IEC 62192-2 Type 2 is not.
The pinouts of some connectors under discussion are as follows.